Youth Tobacco Use & Interventions

Youth Tobacco Use

Factors that contribute to youth tobacco use are identified in the articles below.

Community-Level Determinants of Tobacco Use Disparities in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth
(Archives of Pediatric Messages, 2011)

Creating the Socially Marginalized Youth Smoker: The Role of Tobacco Control
(Sociology of Health & Illness, 2012)

Do Sources of Cigarettes Among Adolescents Vary by Age Over Time? 
(Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 2014)

Internet Chameleons: An Experimental Study on Imitating Smoking Peers Through Digital Interaction
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2011) 

Personal Network Correlates of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use Among Homeless Youth
(Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 2010)

Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults
(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012)

Smoking Expectancies, Weight Concerns, and Dietary Behaviors in Adolescence 
(Pediatrics, 2010)

Social Networks on Smoking, Alcohol, Use and Obesity Among Adolescents Attending a School in the City of Lobos, Buenos Aires
(Archivos Argentinos de Pediatria, 2012)

Teen Smoking Continues to Decline in 2013
(University of Michigan, 2013)

Tobacco Use Among African American Youth Receiving Behavioral Healthcare Services
(Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 2013)

The Use of Mental Health Services by Adolescent Smokers: A Nationwide Israeli Study
(European Psychiatry, 2012)

The Effect of the Internet on Teen and Young Adult Tobacco Use: A Literature Review
(Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 2013)

What Does it Take to Be  a Smoker? Adolescents’ Characterization of Different Smoker Types
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2011)

Youth Prevention Programs

Efforts to prevent youth tobacco use and the efficacy of these efforts are explored in the studies below.

Community Intervention for Preventing Smoking In Young People
(The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011)

Does a Smoking Prevention Program in Elementary Schools Prepare Children for Secondary School? 
(Preventive Medicine, 2011)

Evidence for Truth, The Young Adult Response to a Youth Focused Anti-Smoking Media Campaign
(American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010)

Tar Wars: A Tobacco Free Education Program for 4th and 5th Graders
(NASN School Nurse, 2011)

Using Peer Crowds to Segment Black Youth for Smoking Intervention
(Health Promotion Practice, 2013)

What Prevents Young Adolescents From Smoking? Self-Reported Motives of 12 – 15 Year-Old Non-Smokers
(Health Policy, 2009)

Youth Policy Interventions

Efforts to regulate tobacco, and prevent youth from using tobacco are explored below.

Adolescent Perceptions of Cigarette Appearance
(The European Journal of Public Health, 2013)

Awareness and Reported Consequences of a Cigarette Tax Increase Among Older Adolescents and Young Adults
(Tobacco Control, 2011)

Changes in Smoking Prevalence in 16-17-Year-Old Versus Older Adults Following a Rise in Legal Age of Sale: Findings From an English Population Study
(Addiction, 2010)

Examining Correlates of Different Cigarette Access Behaviors Among Canadian Youth: Data From the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey
(Addictive Behaviors, 2011)

Increasing the Age for the Legal Purchase of Tobacco in England: Impacts on Socio-Economic Disparities in Youth Smoking
(Thorax, 2011)

Increasing Youths’ Exposure to a Tobacco Prevention Media Campaign in Rural and Low-Population-Density Communities
(American Journal of Public Health, 2009)

Long-Term Effects of Laws Governing Youth Access to Tobacco 
(Research and Practice, 2013)

Reducing Underage Alcohol and Tobacco Use: Evidence From the Introduction on Vertical Identification Cards
(Journal of Health Economics, 2013)

Shop Floor Compliance with Age Restrictions for Tobacco Sales: Remote Versus In-Store Ave Verification
(Journal of Adolescent Health, 2010)

The Impact of State Tobacco Control Program Funding Cuts on Teens’ Exposure to Tobacco Control Interventions: Evidence from Florida
(Health Promotion, 2009)

The Influence of School Policies on Smoking Prevalence Among Students in Grades 5-9, Canada, 2004-2005
(Centers for Disease Control, 2010)

What Impact Have tobacco Control Policies, Cigarette Prices and Tobacco Control Programme Funding Has on Australian Adolescents’ Smoking? Findings Over a 15 Year Period
(Addiction, 2011)

Youth Tobacco Access and Possession Policy Interventions: Effects on Observed and Perceived Tobacco Use
(The American Journal on Addictions, 2010)

Youth Tobacco Initiation

Influences that promote or discourage youth from starting to use tobacco are identified below.

Authoritative Parenting and Cigarette Smoking Among Multiethnic Preadolescents: The Mediating Role of Anti-Tobacco Parenting Strategies
(Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2013)

Choosing Adolescent Smokers as Friends: The Role of Parenting and Parental Smoking
(Journal of Adolescence, 2013)

Does One Cigarette Make an Adolescent Smoker, and is it Influenced by Age and Age of Smoking Initiation? Evidence of Association from the U.S. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
(Preventive Medicine, 2013)

Peers, Tobacco Advertising, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Influences Smoking Initiation in Diverse Adolescents
(American Journal of Health Promotion, 2011)

Sex Differences in Smoking Initiation Among Children and Adolescents
(Public Health, 2012)

Smoking Behaviors of Adolescents, Influences by Smoking of Teachers, Family, and Friends
(International Council of Nurses, 2014)

The Dynamic Role of Parental Influences in Preventing Adolescent Smoking Initiation
(Addictive Behaviors, 2013)

Where and When Adolescents Use Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana: Comparisons by Age, Gender, and Race
(Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2013)

Youth and Health Problems from Tobacco Use

Tobacco use can cause both immediate and long-term health consequences. The following explore health problems from tobacco use in young people.

Atherogenesis in Youth – Early Consequence of Adolescent Smoking
(Atherosclerosis, 2013)

Tobacco & Hollywood

Tobacco use in movies can contribute to youth smoking initiation. Tobacco product placement and smoking behavior has been present in movies for children as well as adults. A movement to restrict tobacco in movies is ongoing.

Does the Exposure to Smoking Cues in Movies Affect Adolescents’ Immediate Smoking Behavior?
(Addictive Behaviors, 2013)

Exposure to Smoking in Movies and Smoking Initiation Among Black Youth
(American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2013)

Iranian Audience Poll on Smoking Scenes in Persian Movies in 2011
(International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2014)

Out Smoking on the Big Screen: Tobacco Use in LGBT Movies, 2000-2011
(Tobacco Control, 2013)

Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation – Longitudinal Study in Six European Countries
(American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2013)

Smoking in Top-Grossing US Movies
(Center for Tobacco Control Research & Education, 2012)

Tobacco Use in Bollywood Movies, Tobacco Promotional Activities and Their Association With Tobacco Use Among Indian Adolescents
(Tobacco Control, 2011)

Trends in Tobacco and Alcohol Brand Placements in Popular US Movies, 1996 Through 2009
(JAMA Pediatrics, 2013) 

Violent Film Characters’ Portrayal of Alcohol, Sex, and Tobacco-Related Behaviors
(Pediatrics, 2013)

Tobacco & Other Media

In addition to Tobacco and Hollywood, tobacco is found in other media outlets as well.

The Influence of Youth Music Television Viewership on Changes in Cigarette Use and Association With Smoking Peers: A Social Identity, Reinforcing Spirals Perspective 
(Communication Research, 2010)

Transportation into Narrative Worlds: Implications for Entertainment Media Influences on Tobacco Use
(Addiction, 2013)

Retail Mass-Marketing

The following articles explore mass marketing of tobacco in the retail environment.

‘Acceptable Rebellion’: Marketing Hipster Aesthetics to Sell Camel Cigarettes in the US
(Tobacco Control, 2010) 

A Convenient Analysis of Camel Snus Advertisements in Print Media
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2011)

“Below the Line”: The Tobacco Industry and Youth Smoking
(AMJ, 2009)

Camel No. 9 Cigarette-Marketing Campaign Targeted Young Teenage Girls
(Pediatrics, 2010)

Cigarette Advertising and Adolescent Smoking
(American Journal of Preventing Medicine, 2010)

Cigarette Advertising and Teen Smoking Initiation
(Pediatrics, 2011)

Impact of Female-Oriented Cigarette Packaging in the United States
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2011)

International Reach of Tobacco Marketing Among Young Children
(Pediatrics, 2013)

Impact of Tobacco Advertisements on Tobacco Use Among Urban Adolescents in India: Results From a Longitudinal Story
(Tobacco Control, 2011)

Perceptions of Smoking Prevalence by Youth in Countries With and Without a Tobacco Advertising Ban
(Journal of Health Communication, 2010) 

Seeing and Liking Cigarette Advertisements: Is There a ‘Mere Exposure’ Effect? 
(Addiction Research, 2013)

Sexual Imagery in Cigarette Advertising Before and After the Master Settlement Agreement 
(Health Communications, 2010)

The Hazards of New Media: Youth’s Exposure to Tobacco Ads/Promotions
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2013)

The Tobacco Tug-of-War: Advertising and Counteradvertising Tobacco Products to Youth
(Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, & Pulmonology, 2010)

Tobacco Advertising Through French TV in 2005: Frequent Illicit Broadcastig; It’s Impact on Teenagers and Young Adults
(Journal of Public Health, 2009)

Tobacco and Media Exposure in Poor Neighborhoods: Implications for the Incidence of Smoking Among Community Residents
(International Journal of Nursing Practice, 2011)

Trends in Exposure to Pro-Tobacco Advertisements Over the Internet, in Newspapers/Magazines, and at Retail Stores Among U.S. Middle and High School Students, 2000-2012
(Preventive Medicine, 2013)

Under the Radar: Smokeless Tobacco Advertising in Magazines With Substantial Youth Readership
(American Journal of Public Health, 2007) 

Retail-Point of Sale Advertising

Promotion of tobacco at the point of sale is documented and explored in the studies below.

A Store Cohort Study of Compliance With a Point-of-Sale Cigarette Display Ban in Melbourne, Australia
(Nicotine & Tobacco, 2012)

Awareness and Impact of New York City’s Graphic Point-of-Sale Tobacco Health Warning Signs
(Tobacco Control, 2011)

Brand Placement on Price Boards After Tobacco Display Bans: A Point-of-Sale Audit in Melbourne, Austrailia
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2012)

Retail Price and Point of Sale Display of Tobacco in the UK: A Descriptive Study of Small Retailers
(Plos One, 2012)

Smokeless Tobacco Advertising at the Point of Sale: Prevalence, Placement, and Demographic Correlates
(Nicotine & Tobacco, 2011)

Targeted Advertising, Promotion, and Price For Menthol Cigarettes in California High School Neighborhoods
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2011)

The Association Between Point-of-Sale Displays and Youth Smoking Susceptibility
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2011)

The Relationship of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising and Neighborhood Characteristics to Underage Sales of Tobacco
(Evaluation & the Health Professions, 2012) 

Tobacco Advertising and Sales Practices in Licensed Retail Outlets After the Food and Drug Administration Regulations
(Journal of Community Health, 2012)

Tobacco Display and Brand Communication at the Point of Sale: Implications for Adolescent Smoking Behavior
(Tobacco Control, 2013)

Tobacco Retail Density

The concentration and location of tobacco sales can influence tobacco use in certain locations.

Exploration of the Link Between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking
Journal of School Health, 2013)

Local Tobacco Policy and Tobacco Outlet Density: Association With Youth Smoking
(Journal of Adolescent Health, 2012) 

Neighborhood Deprivation and Outlet Density for Tobacco, Alcohol, and Fast Food: First Hints of Obesogenic and Addictive Environments in Germany
(Public Health Nutrition, 2012)

The Density of Tobacco Retailers and Its Association With Attitudes Toward Smoking, Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising, Cigarette Purchasing, and Smoking Among New York Youth
(Preventive Medicine, 2012)

Tobacco Outlet Density and Social Disadvantage in New South Wales, Australia
(Tobacco Control, 2012) 

Tobacco Retailer Clustering Around Schools in New York City: Examining “place” and “space” 
(Health & Place, 2013)

Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada
(International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2013)

Tobacco Retailer Density Surrounding Schools and Youth Smoking Behavious: A Multi-Level Analysis
(Tobacco Induced Diseases, 2011) 

Using Geographic Information Systems to Compare the Density of Stores Selling Tobacco and Alcohol: Youth Making an Argument for Increased Regulation of the Tobacco Permitting Process in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
(Tobacco Control, 2010)

Retail Packaging

The packaging of tobacco products can increase product appeal. Graphic warning labels and plain packaging can reduce this appeal, but efforts to regulate packaging have been challenging in the U.S.

Adolescents’ Perceptions of Cigarette Brand Image: Does Plain Packaging Make a Difference? 
(Journal of Adolescent Health, 2009)

Cigarette Package Health Warnings, International Status Report
(Canadian Cancer Society, 2012)

Graphic Warning Labels on Plain Cigarette Packs: Will They Make a Difference to Adolescents? 
(Social Science & Medicine, 2011) 

Mass Media Campaigns Designes to Support New Pictorial Health Warnings on Cigarette Packets: Evidence of a Complementary Relationships
(Tobacco Control, 2011)

No Place to Hide: Two Pilot Studies Assessing the Effectiveness of Adding a Health Warning to the Cigarette Stick
(Tobacco Control, 2013)

Pictorial Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs in the United States: An Experimental Evaluation of the Proposed FDA Warnings
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2012)

Understanding How Graphic Pictorial Warnings Work on Cigarette Packaging
(American Marketing Association, 2010)