Tobacco-Free Policy & Regulation

Tobacco-free policies restrict the use of tobacco products in certain areas. Having a tobacco-free policy helps tobacco users quit, and discourages young people from starting. Tobacco free policies also protect individuals from secondhand smoke exposure, and reduce tobacco waste in the environment.

Policy – General Information

Colleges can support student health by adopting comprehensive tobacco-free campus spaces. Cessation programs for the campus community supports successful implementation of college tobacco-free policy. Both nonsmokers and smokers have high approval rates for restricting tobacco use on campus.

College Campus Smoking Policies and Programs and Students’ Smoking Behaviors
(BMC Public Health, 2005)

College Smoking Policies and Smoking Cessation Programs: Results of a Survey of College Health Center Directors
(Journal of American College Health, 2001)

Exposure to Tobacco Marketing and Support for Tobacco Control Policies
(American Journal of Health Behavior, 2006)

Impact of Smoke-Free Residence Hall Policies: The Views of Administrators at 3 State Universities
(Journal of American College Health, 2005)

Position Paper: Tobacco Prevention and Control in the California Community Colleges
(HSACCC, 2014)

Preferred Smoking Policies at 30 Pacific Northwest Colleges
(Public Health Reports, 2006)

Smoke-Free Policy and Alcohol Use Among Undergraduate College Students
(Public Health Nursing, 2012)

Texas College Students’ Opinions of No-Smoking Policies, Secondhand Smoke, and Smoking in Public Places
(Journal of American College Health, 2006)

The Impact of Prices and Control Policies on Cigarette Smoking Among College Students
(Contemporary Economic Policy, 2001)

Tobacco-Free Community College Campuses A Review of Policies
(Hanover Research Council, 2010)

Impact of Tobacco-Free Policies

Tobacco-Free policies provide a more healthful environment for students, staff, faculty, and campus visitors. These policies have been found to reduce people’s exposure to secondhand smoke. They can also reduce smoking and smokeless tobacco use, and tobacco-related waste found on campus property. Tobacco-free policies change social norms of tobacco use on campus. Schools with updated and current policies have been found to have the most compliance with tobacco use on campus. Policy alone should not be considered a solution to tobacco use on campus, a comprehensive infrastructure including enforcement and cessation services contributes to improved policy compliance.

An Assessment of America’s Tobacco-Free Colleges and Universities
(Journal of American College Health, 2012)

An Exploratory Analysis of the Impact of a University Campus Smoking Ban on Staff and Student Habits in Japan
(Tobacco Induced Diseases, 2013)

Assessment of College and University Campus Tobacco-Free Policies in North Carolina
(Journal of American College Health, 2012)

Benefits of Smoke-Free Regulation in Outdoor Settings: Beaches, Golf Courses, Parks, Patios, and in Motor Vehicles
(William Mitchell Law Review, 2008)

Cigarette Use by College Students in Smoke-Free Housing
(American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2001)

Canadian Campus Smoking Policies: Investigating the Gap Between Intent and Outcome From a Student Perspective
(Journal of American College Health, 2011)

Changes in Smokeless Tobacco Use Over Four Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2013)

Cigarette Butts Near Building Entrances: What is the Impact of Smoke-Free College Campus Policies?
(Tobacco Control, 2011)

Do State Expenditures on Tobacco Control Programs Decrease Use of Tobacco Products Among College Students?
(Health Economics, 2010)

Ethical and Legal Analyses of Policy Prohibiting Tobacco Smoking in Enclosed Spaces
(Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, 2009)

Is There An Impact of Public Smoking Bans on Self-Reported Smoking Status and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke? Do Smoking Bans Decrease Exposure? 
(BMC Public Health, 2011)

Measuring Compliance With Tobacco-Free Campus Policy
(Journal of American College Health, 2012)

Quantifying Littered Cigarette Butts to Measure Effectiveness of Smoking Bans to Building Perimeters
(Journal of American College Health, 2012)

Respiratory Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Young Adults Residing in a “Clean” Indoor Air State
(Journal of Community Health, 2008)

Smokefree Policies to Reduce Tobacco Use, A Systemic Review
(American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010)

Social Norms and Smoking Bans on Campus: Interactions in the Canadian University Context
(Health Education and Research, 2012)

Statewide Diffusion of 100% Tobacco-Free College and University Policies
(Tobacco Control, 2010)

The Impact of School Smoking Policies and Student Perceptions of Enforcement on School Smoking Prevalence and Location of Smoking 
(Health Education Research, 2007)

Policy Adoption

Advocating for and adopting tobacco-free policies is the first step in developing comprehensive tobacco free policies. After policy adoption, implementation and education/enforcement are the next phases. Students, staff, faculty, and administrators play a role in the adoption of tobacco-free campus policies.

Adopting Tobacco-Free Policies on Campuses
(Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, 2014)

Adoption of an Outdoor Residential Hall Smoking Policy in a California Public University: A Case Study
(Journal of American College Health, 2011)

A Review of Undergraduate University Tobacco Control Policy Process in Canada
(Health Education Research, 2009) 

College Student Reactions to Smoking Bans in Public, Campus and at Home
(Health Education Research, 2010)

Improving Tobacco-Free Advocacy on College Campuses: A Novel Strategy to Aid in the Understanding of Student Perceptions About Policy Proposals
(Journal of American College Health, 2014)

Roles of Organizers and Champions in Building Campus-Community Prevention Partnerships
(Journal of American College Health, 2008)

The Three Ts of Adopting Tobacco-Free Policies on College Campuses
(The Nursing Clinics of North America, 2012)

Tobacco Control: Case Study at a California Community College
(California Journal of Health Promotion, 2005)

Using the Photovoice Method to Advocate for Change to a Campus Smoking Policy
(Journal of American College Health, 2012)

Policy Implementation

After a policy is adopted, strategic implementation is key to it’s success. Implementation needs to consider a broad range of issues including safety of smokers, taking care to not marginalize smokers, and providing adequate cessation services.

An Assessment of America’s Tobacco-Free Colleges and Universities
(Journal of American College Health, 2012)

Implementation Effectiveness of Campus Tobacco Free Policies
(University of Kentucky, 2011)

Implementing a Smoke-Free Campus: A Medical Center Initiative 
(Journal of Community Health, 2011)

Tobacco-Free Take Action!: Increasing Policy Adherence on a College Campus
(World Medical & Health Policy, 2013)

Policy Compliance & Enforcement

Getting the campus community to cooperate and comply with the campus tobacco-free policy requites ongoing effort, and may include strategies such as education, promotion, citation, and other interventions.

Enforcing an Outdoor Smoking Ban on a College Campus: Effects of a Multicomponent Approach
(Journal of American College Health, 2009)

Policy Compliance of Smokers on a Tobacco-Free University Campus
(Journal of American College Health, 2014)

Should College Campuses Become Tobacco Free Without an Enforcement Plan? 
(Journal of American College Health, 2012)

Tobacco-Free Policy Attitudes

Attitudes Towards Smokefree Campus Policies in New Zealand
(The New Zealand Medical Journal, 2014)

Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs Over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention
(Journal of American College Health, 2012)

Moving Forward: A Cross Sectional Baseline Study of Staff and Student Attitudes Toward a Totally Smoke Free University Campus
(BMC Public Health, 2013)

The Effect of Smoke-Free Campus Policy on College Students’ Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes
(Preventive Medicine, 2011)

University Personnel’s Attitudes and Behaviors Toward the First Tobacco-Free Campus Policy in Tennessee
(Journal of Community Health, 2011)

Tobacco Free Workplaces

The following studies explore the ethics and outcomes of tobacco free workplace policies.

Occupation and Workplace Policies Predict Smoking Behaviors
(Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2011)

The Ethics of Not Hiring Smokers
(New England Journal of Medicine, 2013)

Other Tobacco Regulation

The following studies identify and explore other tobacco policy and regulation efforts.

Americans Favor Ban on Smoking in Public, But Not Total Ban
(Gallup Poll, 2014)

Banning Smoking in Parks and on Beaches: Science, Policy, and the Politics of Denormalization
(Health Affairs, 2013)

Development of an Integrated Tobacco Endgame Strategy
(Tobacco Control, 2013) 

Evolution of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTTS) 1998-2008
(Global Health Promotion, 2009) 

Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, Banning Outdoor Tobacco Advertising Near Schools and Playgrounds
(American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2011)

Federal Approaches to the Regulation of Noncigarette Tobacco Products
(American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2012)

Postmarketing Surveillance for “Modified Risk” Tobacco Products
(Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2011) 

Public Opinion About FDA Regulation of Menthol and Nicotine
(Tobacco Control, 2014) 

Reducing Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exopsure: Smoke-Free Policies
(The Community Guide, 2014)

The Millennium Development Goals and Tobacco Control
(Global Health Promotion, 2010)

The Use of Training and Technical Assistance to Drive and Improve Performance of California’s Tobacco Control Program
(Health Promotion Practice, 2011)

Tobacco Price Promotion, Policy Responses to Industry Price Manipulation
(Center for Public Health and Tobacco Policy, 2011) 

Tobacco Product Regulation – A Public Health Approach
(New England Journal of Medicine, 2010)